Wednesday, April 18, 2018

Woodworking in 2018

I write about the dichotomy occurring in present day woodworking. The clash between the growing movement towards traditional hand tool woodworking versus the rise in automation along with a plethora of machinery to expedite woodworking processes. This is from the perspective of a traditional woodworker determining how much current woodworking technology to embrace in his studio practice. I write this because today we are bombarded on two fronts in woodworking. Go traditional with hand tools, go modern with the latest in technology, or somehow combine the two. I lay out how I resolved my own compromise and came to terms with the dilemma. The machinery I speak of is increasingly sophisticated to where an operator sitting alongside a CNC machine can quickly create components for a piece of furniture. At the hand tool end, the debate swirls around what constitutes traditional woodworking. Should wood be prepared and dimensioned by hand? Should this grunt work be performed by machines with the emphasis then shifting to hand tools? Can the use of power tools be combined with hand tools in a truly traditional woodworking shop? Would our woodworking forefathers have embraced machinery if it existed in their historical period?

Interestingly, elements of this debate also occurred during the advent of the Industrial Age in the late 1800's. The reasons then to not embrace machinery were somewhat similar. Machines were thought to remove the human touch and craft component from furniture. Skills which had been passed down through generations of woodworkers would be lost. Victory was achieved with the advent of the Arts & Crafts movement, although this was short-lived. Eventually, the use of machinery in woodworking won the battle resulting in the further distancing of woodworkers from their traditional craft. Over 100 years of woodworking production advancements later and traditional woodworking is once again being embraced.



The reasons are similar to the repudiation of the Industrial Age with the only difference being that we are today on the cusp of full automation in production woodworking manufacturing. Developments to facilitate and expedite production are occurring at a faster pace than ever before. So, although it seems strange today to embrace traditional hand tool methods, it is more relevant in light of the possibility of forever losing a centuries old craft. Thumbs up to the many private schools dedicated to teaching traditional hand-oriented woodworking skills today. Traditional woodworking has effectively ceased to be taught in mainstream schools, fewer and fewer parents immerse themselves in woodworking to pass down to children. Some have mentioned the traditional craft of woodworking is on its death bed. Woodworking taught in schools today tends to focus on automation and heavy use of machinery. In the big picture, the resurgence of traditional woodworking methods using hand tools could not occur at a better time in history!



I must admit that it can be confusing for an entry level woodworker of which path to follow today. Is their work intended to be batched out or instead created as one-offs? The larger issue becomes the processes used to achieve this goal. The use of modern technology can be enticing, where visions of machines magically create components for furniture never ceases to amaze. Machinery manufacturers are constantly upgrading their offerings to where the learning curve for CNC is rapidly diminishing. This would be at the extreme end of full automation. At the traditional end, new and often improved releases of traditional hand tools continue to occur. High quality and precisely machined hand tools are widely available today. The single most common and necessary component in the traditional, hand tool equation is the necessity to manually push or pull a hand plane, saw or chisel in order to prepare wood, smooth wood or to create joinery. So a large component of manual labor is involved.



A woodworker with many years of experience may have come to terms with the direction they wish to follow. In many cases, they embrace a quieter, less hurried form of woodworking. Their woodworking passion is better served in the enjoyment of creating a piece rather than simply achieving the end goal. Instead, somebody just starting out will perhaps wonder why today they should be performing manual tasks such as hand planing, hand sawing boards and creating joinery by hand. After all, isn't this why machinery was created, to facilitate the processing of boards used in furniture making? Hasn't the trend in industry always been to make our jobs easier and more productive? This is the dilemma facing many woodworkers today, specifically new woodworkers. I don't pretend to have a solution and can only form an opinion through many years of experience in both camps. As a former hi-tech person and convert to a quieter form of woodworking, I would much rather work with traditional, time-proven methods than to embrace the latest in machinery whose goal is to make my life easier. I too faced this dilemma and have been minimizing the use of machinery in my woodworking. In the process, I have since learned to appreciate wood as a medium and not just to use it as a means to an end. The machines I use today are effectively motorized hand tools, nothing sophisticated. This is where I draw the line.



In my studio practice, it is preferable for me to be closer to the wood and work with its characteristics and inherent beauty. Today, I use machines to prepare wood in the initial stages and perhaps to dimension it. Afterwards, all processes in my furniture making incorporate the use of hand tools. I will always seek a method to use a hand tool to perform a task before ever considering using a machine. So this is how I have come to terms with the question of maintaining traditional methods in my own work. I find this to be the best compromise in coping with an ever-increasing fast-paced, technological and production-oriented world.

Friday, April 6, 2018

Drawer makeover...

I have a small Krenov-inspired cabinet which I have enjoyed for the most part. The drawers not so much. The cabinet is solid beech but long ago the decision was made to make two stacked drawers with walnut fronts to provide contrast to the beech. I realized at the time that the contrast was not ideal, but for the sake of expediency, went ahead to see if it would grow on me. Well it hasn't. Another idea at the time was to have through-dovetails to attach the drawer fronts to the sides. This provided another level of contrast and introduced yet another wood to the mix. Overall, I wasn't pleased. So recently I decided to give the drawers a makeover and replace the drawer fronts with something more aesthetically pleasing and to provide not so harsh a contrast. Pic below of original drawer fronts.


My first attempt was to use some highly figured veneer I had stored away. It is commercial veneer so very thin. The veneer itself is beautiful, light in color and would make the interior of the beech cabinet pop. First step was to scrape down the surface of the drawer fronts and glued a piece of this veneer to each. Did this successfully and began to create the mortises for the new pulls. However, there is something about commercial veneer that doesn't sit well with me and I was not able to get past this. The thickness of the material is paper (thick paper) thin and brittle, too fragile for my taste.

Since it would be necessary to scrape the surfaces to get a polished aesthetic, this was entirely not possible with this thin, brittle veneer. I typically use shop-sawn resawn veneers in my work. Instead, I created some band-sawn ambrosia maple with beautiful figure between 1/16 and  3/32 in. thick. I decided to go ahead with this shop-sawn veneer instead. Next I band sawed the drawer front to the thickness of this shop-sawn figured ambrosia. Applied the veneer to the drawer fronts and I could not be more pleased with the outcome. Shop-sawn veneers are more workable and forgiving with hand tools.

I then created two new wide pulls out of blackwood. A single pull instead of two in the original drawer front. Also decided on eliminating the upper and lower shoulders of the pulls to be able to have them thinner. This would not take away from the figured fronts as much. This step introduced a level of risk in creating the mortises, since there is no drawer pull shoulder to rely on to hide an imperfect mortise.


After some judicious mortising using chisels and a mallet,, then some paring, the drawer pull mortises were created as seen above. The most critical part of this step is to remove the top-most layer of wood; it is so easy to tearout the surrounding wood if the chisel cuts are not clean. Then it is simply a matter of cutting and paring to the correct depth of the tenon for the drawer pull. Contemporary-styled blackwood pull temporarily inserted below.


So very happy with the outcome and will be completely replacing the doors of the cabinet next. I intend to use veneered figured wood for the doors, similar wood (Ambrosia Maple) as the drawer fronts. I plan to write a detailed article about this in the next issue of WOODSKILLS Magazine


Thursday, April 5, 2018

WOODSKILLS Issue 01 - new magazine

**Updated with new video of print version of magazine.

The idea was hatched a year or so ago but other projects came first. A new magazine catering to the discerning, fine woodworking enthusiast. It was an idea that slowly developed and at one point became a reality. So a small team and I have been working at this since the month of January and we are happy to announce that the latest woodworking and furniture making magazine WOODSKILLS is now available. Some of the features in the magazine are articles on hand tool use and techniques, profiles of accomplished woodworkers and furniture makers, best studio practices, contemporary furniture design, gallery, tool discussions. The terms studio and workshop are used interchangeably throughout the magazine. WOODSKILLS is a semi-annual publication, published twice yearly in the late spring and late fall.

As a follower and practitioner of James Krenov style of work and methodology, both hand tool and some machine techniques are included. Although the vast majority of articles refer to hand tools, machinery is not excluded. I find this to be a more realistic approach in this day and age. Machines can do the grunt work whereas hand tools are used to create joinery, shape and finesse furniture components, smoothing surfaces, etc. Advertising will be at an absolute minimum and consists of curated advertising, a term gleaned from the art world. Advertising must reflect practices and products that our readers and the team at WOODSKILLS could use or include in their own workshops and studios. Available through woodskills.com or Amazon (print version).
 
Woodworker and Furniture Designer Profiles
Workshop Setups & Best Practices
Hand Tool Techniques
Furniture Design Gallery
Contemporary Furniture Design

WOODSKILLS Issue 01 woodworking magazine

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Web Site: www.woodskills.com

Wednesday, February 7, 2018

Workbench accessories...(Pt. 2)

After completing and successfully testing the portable board jack in the previous post, I decided to continue on with workbench workholding accessories. At this point, two clamping attachments came to mind. The first, an edge dog, alternatively known as a bench puppy, was modelled after a College Of The Redwoods derived design. This particular design was gained from a Timothy Coleman article on this type of workholding device, also derived from a College Of The Redwoods design.


A good example of how an edge dog can be used to hold a board on edge can be seen in the following image. One end is held by a edge dog whereas the other end is an add-on to a twin-screw vise which I discuss next. Instead of clamping a board to the surface of a workbench, the edge dog is used to clamp the board along the workbench edge and therefore at a more reasonable and lower height suitable for handplaning. Having a pair of these edge dogs allows either side of the workbench to be used. The edge dogs are created with opposing configurations as shown above.

My current workbenches do not incorporate dedicated tail vises. In place, I use a Veritas Twin-screw vise which performs as a tail vise when clamping boards on their face. When it comes to clamping boards on edge, the twin-screw vise can also be used along with bench dogs. The edge of the work piece would be then sitting on the workbench top. However, this raises the height of the board considerably and is not very conducive to jointing an edge of a board or handplaning. Ideally, the edge of a board should be slightly higher than the workbench surface to effectively perform hand plane operations. With this in mind, I created this outboard add-on to the twin-screw vise which extends the width of the vise movable jaw past the edge of the workbench.


Shown above, this newly designed outboard add-on accessory is an addition to the twin-screw movable jaw. In effect, the twin screw vise now becomes an enhanced tail vise capable of clamping boards on edge along the side of a workbench. The clamping is done in conjunction with the previously mentioned edge dog. Images of a board being clamped between these two accessories are shown below.


In these photos I am jointing the edge of a white ash board. I was surprised at how tightly the board is clamped with minimal tension applied to the twin screw vise. The friction from the leather pads contribute to this as slightly more tension was necessary before applying the leather pads. The outboard extension to the twin-screw vise is removable and can be adapted to either side of the twin-screw vise. I am left-handed so having it located to the right of the vise as shown, is more practical. For right-handed use, the opposite edge of the workbench would be used for jointing. As an added bonus, there is no racking of the twin-screw vise regardless of the clamping pressure I apply to the outboard extension.


Friday, February 2, 2018

Workbench accessories...(Pt. 1)

Soon after completing the Moxon Vise project and creating the illustrated drawings, build steps, images, video... I decided to work on a few other workbench accessories.

Workbench accessories - any workbench add-ons that facilitate the holding and clamping of boards or panels. Boards or panels can be mounted on their edge and along their length. You get the idea...

Workbenches can be large in size, massive in weight and beautiful looking but their ability to hold and clamp boards is one of their most important criteria. So holding or clamping a long, wide board along its length can be a challenging tasks of a workbench. In an earlier workbench I incorporated a sliding board jack that worked in conjunction with the face vise. This has and continues to work well since I had built this workbench from the ground up and allowed for the addition of the sliding board jack. With two of my newer slab-type workbenches, adding a sliding board jack was much more of a challenge. I did not want to modify the workbenches or drill screw holes through the tops. Adding an apron or skirt with dog holes along the length of the workbench top was an option, but this involved modifying the workbench itself.

Enter the portable board jack. I designed it to easily attach to the underside of a slab-type workbench top where it serves to support the free end of a long plank or board. It can either be left attached to the workbench or removed when no longer necessary. It can also be moved across the length of the workbench or relocated to the opposite side of a workbench. It can just as easily be moved to another workbench. The nice part is there are no modifications necessary to the workbench.



After a period of testing, I was pleasantly surprised at how well it works. It is completely unobtrusive and designed to accept standard 3/4 inch or 20 mm accessories such as surface clamps, bench dogs and shop-made planing stops. The portable board jack can be adapted to any slab-type workbench top without an existing apron or skirt as can be seen in the images. A face vise at one end keeps the board securely clamped on edge. Jointing the edge of long boards has become so much easier and second nature to me now.



The hole arrangement on the portable board jack is optimized for the work I do but can be modified if necessary. I no longer give any thought to attaching or clamping a long board on edge and along its length to my workbenches. Often, I simply need a peg to be able to rest the free end of a board on. This allows me to quickly and easily flip the board around to work both long edges.



Now, I just selected my most-often used side of a workbench to work on and leave the portable board jack attached. In the future, I will possibly be creating another board jack for my other, similar workbench. This adds to the versatility since it will no longer be necessary to move the board jack from bench to bench.



Next up in the forthcoming installment or Part 2, a couple of cool bench accessories that continue with the theme of attaching and clamping long boards to a workbench. These are boards that are too long to simply clamp to a face vise. It just makes it so much more pleasant to perform handplaning or hand tool tasks once a board or panel is securely clamped. I like for this to be straightforward so I can focus on the task I need to perform instead of spending needless time on securely attaching and clamping a board to a workbench.

Wednesday, January 10, 2018

Moxon vise build...(Pt. 2)

The Moxon vise build continued and the vise was completed a couple of days after beginning the project. There was a considerable delay in determining the optimum length of the vise. This actually held me back since making it too short is essentially non-correctable later. Too long and there is a weight penalty as these Moxon vises tend to be heavy, especially with the Benchcrafted solid iron handwheels. Although the extra mass and weight can be your friend when clamping boards down, portability of the unit is also a consideration. I would need to determine the size of panels I most often worked with. In my work, I never go over about 20 inches in width so I set this as optimal distance between the screws. Then, using guidelines on screw hole placement provided in the Benchcrafted instructions, a final length of 28 inches was decided on. I did follow the suggested screw hole placement in the Benchcrafted instructions, this saved some time. Next was to mark the 3/4 inch screw holes and begin drilling, careful to have the holes in the front and rear jaws perfectly aligned.

Moxon vise mortise captive nutMortising for the captive nut in the rear jaw inside face was performed using bevel-edge and mortise chisels. Hard maple is well.. hard! In this case, the mortise chisels excelled at hogging out material from the 3/4 inch deep mortise. With a softer hardwood, lighter bevel-edge chisels would have been sufficient. I also oriented the nut so it would align well with the long edges of the rear jaw, mostly an aesthetic consideration. 

Moxon vise captive nut in rear jaw
After test-fitting the Benchcrafted hardware and ensuring it worked smoothly, the next step was to attach a large block of wood to the rear. This block of wood would both stabilize the vise assembly and allow holdfasts to be used to clamp the Moxon vise to the workbench top. Several other intermediate steps were performed, always careful to get alignments exactly correct. There is almost no room for error in making these vises since replacing either of the jaws is both time and material consuming. A more comprehensive article on how I made this Moxon vise will be available at the web site soon.  

A table extension and vertical support was then added after ensuring the stabilizer was effective at clamping down the Moxon vise to the workbench. The table allows me to extend horizontal boards for marking..i.e. dovetails. I customized the design to use an extra row of dog holes in the center area of my workbench. I have two of these workbenches set as my primary workbenches, so the Moxon vise will be completely portable between benches. The vise can also be located almost anywhere on the workbench surface as the holdfast locations are optimized to clamp the stabilizer block of wood at rear of the vise. I am using Gramercy holdfasts but any holdfasts can be set up for use with the vise.


More detail of the handwheel, screw, and captive nut can be seen above. The table is reinforced below both long edges for maximum support, this to allow for any mallet work. i.e. chopping out dovetails. A large design consideration was to not make the Moxon vise too heavy as I would often be removing it from the workbench top and/or moving it between workbenches. The table size was optimized for this vise and the type of work I do. When designing your own Moxon vise, you will need to determine the size of boards and panels you most often work with. The overall length of the Moxon vise is the most important consideration in its design, it is best to get it right the first time!


A more in-depth article on how I made this Moxon vise will be available at the WoodSkills web site soon. 

Wednesday, January 3, 2018

Moxon vise build...(Pt. 1)

So I decided to build myself a Moxon vise over the holidays. Business slowed and I had the time to get going on this project. A Moxon vise was something on my mind for quite some time, it was simply a case of finding time to make it. Some time was spent on research to determine which version best suited my work methods. It is essentially a straightforward build, but critical to get it right to ensure the time and material investment is put to good use.

I'm not 100% sure of the origins of the Moxon vise design, but it is widely attributed to Joseph Moxon. Joseph Moxon (8 August 1627 – February 1691), hydrographer to Charles II English printer specialising in mathematical books and maps. Moxon's 17th century book. The Art of Joinery first described the double-screw vise. In this historical publication was documented the Moxon vise - a double-screw held to a workbench top with clamps or holdfasts in order to facilitate certain work.

The main criteria for me was to be able to hold work above the standard height of a workbench. Rather than piece together the hardware for the vise itself, I opted for the Benchcrafted Moxon Vise hardware kit as it includes everything mechanical. I would need to supply the wood and shape the vise jaws (chops). This would be for the basic vise. A more complex version with an additional work table behind the vise would involve several more steps. The overall length of the Moxon vise has yet to be decided on, but will be in the 28 to 32 in. range.


So after deliberating on the design, I simply went at it and worked on the front and rear jaws. Not having 8/4 stock available to me, I opted to laminate some 4/4 maple pieces instead. In the past, I have had success with the strength and stability of 4/4 boards laminated together. In selecting the boards, I mixed the grain orientations up so each of the laminated boards would counter the grain of the other board. This, in my opinion, balances out the internal stresses of the woods and keeps it all straight and stable. Laminating one of the jaws here with 4/4 boards. As they say, one never has enough clamps. In the pic below, this was almost the case, but it worked out. I do have other clamps, but for the most part, they are lighter. To be continued...


Thursday, November 2, 2017

The evolution...

Several years ago, 2006 to be exact, Michael Dresdner contacted me to ask about profiling me in an upcoming Woodworker's Journal online publication. Of course, I jumped at the opportunity to talk about my woodworking and how I got to where I was at the time. I was transitioning from primarily being a box maker to furniture making and the reasons for this shift in direction were discussed in the interview.



Jewelry Box Build

In that period, I had completed a series of courses at a high-end furniture making school and began to use hand tools more in my work. I recall that the year 2006 was an important juncture in my woodworking. I had embraced the Krenov philosophy and his methods of work. Reading and attending the fine furniture making school inspired me to increase the complexity and scale of my woodworking. I also learned to slow down my woodworking and focus instead on each and every piece rather than applying myself to creating in batch mode ( multiples). So my direction changed dramatically in the years 2006-2008 to where I now design + build one-off furniture pieces exclusively.

The most important takeaway from the interview would likely be the last line: “If you are tired of your day job,” Pirollo advises, “do what I did. Pursue your passion instead.” To this day, I completely believe in this quote. It is never to early to pursue your passion. Get a head start, so if unforeseen circumstances affect your livelihood (career), you will be prepared.  Early on my hi-tech career, I pursued many woodworking courses at the college level, set up my own workshops and struggled and worked at learning the woodworking trade. After experiencing a total of 3 downsizings, I gave up on my hi-tech career and moved on to a career in woodworking. This had been my Plan B all along 😉 The important part is that I was well prepared to launch a second career. You never know where fate will lead you!

I'll let you read the article.
Norman Pirollo: The Refined Edge of White Mountain


Monday, October 23, 2017

Hand Tool Class

I have recently compiled a series of 24 videos into an online class on hand tools. The class combines videos from two different sources. So a background on hand tools is introduced as well as best practices. Many of the video lessons include step by step hand tool sequences. The Hand Tool Class is derived from twenty years of woodworking and furniture making expertise. I work with both hand and power tools today but really only use power tools for preliminary processing of lumber into wood planks. I consider this grunt work. The carrot at the end of the stick comes later when final dimensioning, joinery and detail work occur strictly using hand tools. I find this to be an effective compromise in my real-life furniture design + build studio.


I also include the Dovetail Jig Plan as well as my Shooting Board Plan ($24) with each purchase. There is so much to grasp with hand tools, especially hand planes. Hopefully, this Hand Tool Class will make it easy for woodworkers (both new and seasoned) to better understand the intricacies of hand tools. The how's and why's of each tool are introduced! The class should provide a good basis and a good foundation to make hand tool processes become a larger part of your woodworking. As time goes on, I am transitioning further in the use of hand tools in my own work. With increased exposure and application, I find that I can simply pick up several of the hand tools and complete a task. Muscle memory kicks in and the tools are kept tuned and sharp. Woodworkers often struggle with hand tools early on unless they are shown how to adjust and tune the tools for optimum performance. The frustration of going through the steep learning curve can easily be circumvented through proper instruction. Once past this hurdle, the tools become a pleasure to use.


More detailed info on what the Hand Tool Class offers along with a short , lo-res video below of a few of the highlights and segments available at:  Hand Tool Class

Saturday, October 14, 2017

Cabinet Build Class

I have recently compiled a series of 16 videos into an online class. The subject was a recent display cabinet build. The design and build of the striking Krenov-inspired display cabinet seen below is discussed and demonstrated. The contemporary styled display cabinet features veneered sides and doors. The veneers selected are highly figured although they can be substituted with alternative veneers. The frame and panel back adheres to the Krenov principle of properly finishing the back of the cabinet. James Krenov is widely known for his classic cabinets on stand as well as the incredible attention to detail he brought to furniture making. He also brought a unique philosophy and vision to furniture making of which I heed and practice. A large part of this veneered display cabinet has been created using an assortment of hand tools although some machinery is used in the initial wood preparation stage. Follow me as I describe the steps involved in creating a masterpiece veneered cabinet on stand.



The following topics are covered in detail in this 16 part design and build class:
  1. Inspiration and design of the display cabinet
  2. An overview discussing components of the cabinet
  3. Wood selection and resawing veneers used in cabinet
  4. The advantages of using veneers over solid wood
  5. Detailed information on creating and using resawn veneers
  6. The process of applying veneers to the sides and doors
  7. Implementing bake-ins to create panels with hardwood edges
  8. Hardwood edging and the veneer press
  9. The veneer press and joinery used in the cabinet
  10. Card scrapers and the use of a shop-made drilling guide
  11. Dowel drilling guide in-depth
  12. The case construction process
  13. Frame and panel construction of the back panel
  14. Back panel detail and installation
  15. Final case assembly of the display cabinet
  16. Installation process of knife hinges for the doors
Each video segment addresses one aspect of the cabinet build. The design process as well as the methodology behind the build are addresses. This is not simply a class on how to build a cabinet on stand. The class will inform you of a similar design process that James Krenov used in his own work. Since I am an ardent follower of James Krenov, the practices I use in this cabinet build closely follow those of James Krenov. Discussions and demonstrations describe how the design of this display cabinet originated and the design considerations in its build. Information on wood selection and preparation as well as the joinery used in this cabinet is covered in detail. Tips and techniques acquired over several years of creating this style of cabinet are shared in this class. The process of creating and applying veneers is covered as well as information on the installation of knife hinges. More info in the Tutorials section of my web site.


Wednesday, October 11, 2017

Furniture Design Course

In this new course, I cover the furniture design topic. This is a topic near and dear to me as I believe that good design is essential in a quality furniture piece. Good design also minimizes wasted resources and provides a furniture maker with essential feedback and pause when creating furniture. Loosely translated, the design process keeps the maker from rushing into a potentially flawed furniture design. The checks and balances give pause to the process as well as streamlining the build. Developing your own style and furniture aesthetic is also covered. Selecting the right woods for your furniture design is critical in determining the appeal of the final furniture piece.

As with most woodworkers, I was anxious to build furniture early on. With the passage of time and several furniture projects completed, the anxiety of simply creating work had passed. It was far more important to create a well-designed and striking piece of furniture. So I delved into furniture design, studied with some renown furniture makers, and used this knowledge to establish a furniture design process that works.


Furniture Design Course

In the online furniture design course you will learn the skills necessary to design and create your own unique furniture. Learn to develop your own style of furniture and aesthetic. Over 2 hours in total. Course features videos on these topics:
  1. Furniture design overview, the history of furniture design
  2. Becoming familiar with the furniture design process
  3. Understand design process, bring your furniture designs to next level
  4. How to select wood for a furniture design
  5. Use of mockups and prototypes to develop a furniture design
  6. In-depth use of mockups to develop a furniture design
  7. Determining a furniture style for your own furniture designs
  8. Selecting a furniture style and aesthetic
  9. Developing a furniture design
  10. Getting the proportions right in a furniture design
  11. Using the dynamic design process in a furniture design
  12. Use of maquettes and prototypes in a furniture design
  13. Use of templates and CAD when designing your furniture